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KEBOLEHAN PENGKODAN DI KALANGAN PELAJAR ESL (BAHASA INGGERIS SEBAGAI BAHASA KEDUA) TAHUN EMPAT DI SEKOLAH-SEKOLAH TERPILIH DI NEGERI KEDAH

Lee Lay See


ABSTRAK

Kajian dalam pengkodan ESL (Bahasa Inggeris sebagai Bahasa Kedua) telah membuktikan bahawa pengesanan awal dan intervensi terhadap pelajar yang lemah dalam bacaan, boleh merapatkan jurang perbezaan diantara pembaca yang fasih dan lemah. Tujuan kajian ini ialah untuk mengkaji tiga kemahiran pengkodan dikalangan 60 pelajar ‘galus’ (gagal/lulus) Tahun Empat di 3 buah Sekolah Kebangsaan di kawasan luarbandar di negeri Kedah. Keupayaan pengkodan diukur menggunakan tiga ujian daripada Inventori Bacaan Ekwall dan Shanker, iaitu Ujian Foniks El Paso, Ujian Dolch Perkataan Asas dan Ujian Lisan Bacaan. Temubual dan soal-selidik telah di gunakan untuk mengesan bagaimana pelajar-pelajar sekolah rendah telah diajar dan diuji dalam pembacaan. Seramai 30 puluh orang pelajar yang digolongkan sebagai kumpulan eksperimen menjalankan satu jam pengajaran untuk 15 sesi oleh seorang guru sekolah, manakala 30 puluh lagi dalam kumpulan kawalan mengikuti pengajaran kelas seperti biasa. Pengukuran terhadap semua pembolehubah telah diukur dengan menggunakan experimen berbentuk praujian dan pasca ujian. Ujian-t telah digunakan untuk mengkaji perbezaan signifikan min antara kumpulan eksperimen dan kawalan. Dapatan kajian telah menunjukan bahawa terdapat perbezaan signifikan antara dua kumpulan di dalam kesemua tiga kemahiran pengkodan iaitu foniks, perkataan asas (basic sight words) dan bacaan lisan (oral reading). Penemuan kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa kumpulan eksperimen menunjukkan minat yang memeerangsangkan dan memperlihatkan kemajuan dalam bacaan lisan . Tetapi tidak terdapat kemajuan pada subjek kawalan. Dapatan juga menunjukkan bahawa kebanyakan guru di sekolah menganggap bahawa masalah pelajar-pelajar ‘galus’ hanya pada peringkat pemahaman sahaja dan akibatnya kebanyakan pembacaan pelajar-pelajar ‘galus’ tidak diuji dan direkodkan, dan intervensi yang dilaksanakan untuk pelajar-pelajar galus menitikberatkan strategi pemahaman dan tulisan untuk lulus dalam peperiksaan Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah.

ABSTRACT

Studies on ESL decoding abilities of poor readers have been conducted in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia. In fact, research shows that with early detection and intervention, the gap between the good readers and the poor readers could be narrowed. The purpose of this study was to investigate three aspects of decoding abilities of 60 ‘at-risk’ Primary Four school children in 3 rural Malay schools in Kedah. Decoding abilities were measured using three tests from the Ekwall & Shanker Reading Inventory, which were the El Paso Phonics Survey, the Dolch Basic Sight Word Test and Reading Diagnosis. Semi-structured interviews and questionnaires were used to investigate how the ‘at-risk’ children were taught and assessed in oral reading. Thirty children in the experimental group received fifteen sessions of one-hour tutoring from teacher-experimenters, while thirty in the control group followed normal classroom instruction. The dependent variables were assessed using an experimental pre-test and post-test design. The pre-test showed that the subjects have not understood the letter-sound relationship (phonics) in English language, lack knowledge of basic sight words, and have low reading fluency. The independent sample t-test was used to determine if there was any significant statistical difference between gain scores of the experimental and control groups. Results show that there were significant differences in gain scores for the experimental group in all the three tests. Findings also revealed that all subjects in the experimental group showed became highly motivated to read and there was much improvement in their reading. However, there was little or no improvement to the subjects in the control group. Further investigations also revealed that the primary schoolteachers perceived the ‘at-risk’ children’s problem to be only in the area of comprehension. As a result, most of the ‘at-risk’ children’s oral reading ability were not assessed and recorded, and the intervention for the ‘at-risk’ only emphasised comprehension and writing strategies to assist them in passing the Primary Six Examination.

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